How to add themes to your website with manual and CSS prefers-color-scheme support

prefers-color-scheme is a new CSS media query feature, which propagates your OS level color preference. While it's very nice, it's way too new to rely solely on it, so a manual fallback is needed.
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Note: a commented version of the code is available as a Github Gist as well1

Ever since I had a website, I nearly always had it dark, but after reading a lot on reading text on displays, and just listening to opinions and stories, it seemed like people do prefer dark text on white background - light themes. So I tried it.

my website with it's light theme in 2017
my website with it's light theme in 2017

I felt weird and distant; it wasn't me. A couple of months ago I decided to switch my site back to a dark theme. Unfortunately it really doesn't work for everyone, which I can completely understand: I always wished I could tell sites that I want a dark version of them - not with browser addons, just by setting a preference.

My prayers got answered: in the upcoming version of CSS media queries - level 5 -, there is an element: prefers-color-scheme2 which is exactly this - a setting based on your operating system preference. Let's not talk about the fact that this will become yet another fingerprinting method.

While it's in experimental state, macOS Mojave with the preview 68 Safari is already supporting it3. Unfortunately neither Windows nor linux browsers do, regardless the preferred colour scheme4 option in Windows 10, or the :dark GTK3 theme option in Gnome being present for years.

Because it's highly experimental, and some might prefer a manual option, I wanted an solution that provides a button to change theme as well. There are blogposts out there about CSS-only5 or JS-based6 automated solutions, and complex, even more experimental solutions, based CSS variables7 but none of them provided a fallback.

This is my solution to support dynamic media queries for prefers-color-scheme with manual fallback, using an inlined alternative CSS.

Inlined alternative stylesheet

In my site, I have 3 <style> elements: the base, dark style; an alternative light style, which, by default, is only available for speech media - a successor of audible -, and a third, print-only one, which is out of scope for now.

I snippet of it looks like this:

    <style media="all">
        html {
            background-color: #111;
            color: #bbb;
        body {
            margin: 0;
            padding: 0;
            font-family: sans-serif;
            color: #ccc;
            background-color: #222;
            font-size: 100%;
            line-height: 1.3em;
            transition: all 0.2s;
    <style id="css_alt" media="speech">
        body {
            color: #222;
            background-color: #eee;

The idea is to toggle the speech to all on that css_alt element, either automatically or based on user preference. To do this the most semantic way I could think of I made a radiobutton, with 3 states: auto, dark, light.

<form class="theme" aria-hidden="true">
        <input name="colorscheme" value="auto" id="autoscheme" type="radio">
        <label for="autoscheme">auto</label>
        <input name="colorscheme" value="dark" id="darkscheme" type="radio">
        <label for="darkscheme">dark</label>
        <input name="colorscheme" value="light" id="lightscheme" type="radio">
        <label for="lightscheme">light</label>

Making radiobuttons nice

Unfortunately styling a radiobutton (or a checkbox) is near impossible - what you do instead is you hide the checkbox itself and add fancy CSS to show something nicer. That is the reason for wrapping them in a <span>.

label {
  font-weight: bold;
  font-size: 0.8em;
  cursor: pointer;
  margin: 0 0.3em;
  padding: 0.1em 0;

.theme {
  margin: 0 0.3em;
  color: #ccc;
  display: none;

.theme input {
  display: none;

.theme input + label {
  border-bottom: 3px solid transparent;

.theme input:checked + label {
  border-bottom: 3px solid #ccc;


In order to support both a user preference and the automated detection, I had to add the media query in JavaScript instead of using a mere @media query in CSS. I also had to put the script to the bottom of page - otherwise it won't find the elements, since they are not defined yet. I didn't want to use things like document.onload, because that would delay the execution, and I want this as invisible and fast for the visitor as possible.

var DEFAULT_THEME = 'dark';
var ALT_THEME = 'light';
var STORAGE_KEY = 'theme';
var colorscheme = document.getElementsByName('colorscheme');

/* changes the active radiobutton */
function indicateTheme(mode) {
    for(var i = colorscheme.length; i--; ) {
        if(colorscheme[i].value == mode) {
            colorscheme[i].checked = true;

/* turns alt stylesheet on/off */
function applyTheme(mode) {
    var st = document.getElementById('css_alt');
    if (mode == ALT_THEME) {
        st.setAttribute('media', 'all');
    else {
        st.setAttribute('media', 'speech');

/* handles radiobutton clicks */
function setTheme(e) {
    var mode =;
    if (mode == 'auto') {
    else {
        localStorage.setItem(STORAGE_KEY, mode);
    /* when the auto button was clicked the auto-switcher needs to kick in */
    var e = window.matchMedia('(prefers-color-scheme: ' + ALT_THEME + ')');

/* handles the media query evaluation, so it expects a media query as parameter */
function autoTheme(e) {
    var current = localStorage.getItem(STORAGE_KEY);
    var mode = 'auto';
    var indicate = 'auto';
    /* user set preference has priority */
    if ( current != null) {
        indicate = mode = current;
    else if (e != null && e.matches) {
        mode = ALT_THEME;

/* create an event listener for media query matches and run it immediately */
var mql = window.matchMedia('(prefers-color-scheme: ' + ALT_THEME + ')');

/* set up listeners for radio button clicks */
for(var i = colorscheme.length; i--; ) {
    colorscheme[i].onclick = setTheme;

/* display theme switcher form(s) */
var themeforms = document.getElementsByClassName(STORAGE_KEY);
for(var i = themeforms.length; i--; ) {
    themeforms[i].style.display = 'inline-block';

The effect

macOS screen capture by Martijn van der Ven8:

<video controls="controls">
<source src="prefers-color-scheme.mp4" type="video/mp4">

Unfortunately this is the version which contains a former bug, where the indicator followed the media query detected value for the light theme. This is fixed in the code above.


if (! window.matchMedia("(prefers-color-scheme: dark)").matches)

doesn't work trying to match light. That is because prefers-color-scheme has 3 options: no-preference, light, dark, the default being no-preference. The correct method is to match light exactly.